Influencia de la prematuridad sobre el sistema nervioso en la niñez y en la adultez

René Francisco Rodríguez Valdés, Liane Aguilar Fabré, Hebert Luis Hernández Montiel, Josefina Ricardo Garcell, Genaro Vega Malagón, Kenia Aguilar Fabré

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Resumen

OBJETIVO: Revisar la influencia de la prematuridad sobre el sistema nervioso durante los primeros años de vida y posteriormente durante la adultez.

DESARROLLO: Los recién nacidos pretérmino constituyen una población vulnerable. Tienen un elevado riesgo de sufrir problemas de salud, discapacidades neurológicas y trastornos de la conducta, pobre desempeño cognitivo. También cursan con un riesgo elevado de presentar parálisis cerebral y trastornos sensoriales. Por otra parte, es conocido que algunos eventos que ocurren tempranamente en la vida influyen en el desarrollo de enfermedades en la vida adulta. A largo plazo, los niños que nacieron prematuramente tienen mayor riesgo de desarrollar enfermedades cardiovasculares, hipertensión arterial y diabetes mellitus en la edad adulta y posiblemente, también presenten un riesgo mayor de padecer cáncer. El conocimiento de estos aspectos por parte de los profesionales permitiría una mejor compresión de las morbilidades que presentan durante la vida los niños nacidos prematuramente.

CONCLUSIONES: Los programas de atención, evaluación y seguimiento de niños pretérmino deben tener en cuenta el efecto de dicho evento en las diferentes etapas de la vida.

Palabras clave

Cognición; Morbilidad; Prematuro; Sistema nervioso; Trastornos psicomotores; Trastornos de la sensación

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