Hipótesis de lateralización a partir de la asociación entre la topografía del infarto cerebral y la disfunción autonómica cardiaca luego de un ictus isquémico

Marbelys Guevara Rodríguez

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Resumen

OBJETIVO: Describir la asociación entre la topografía del infarto cerebral y la aparición de disfunción autonómica cardíaca después de un ictus isquémico.

ADQUISICIÓN DE LA EVIDENCIA: Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica en la base de datos Medline entre 2014 y 2018, con los términos en inglés: autonomic heart regulation o autonomic nervous system, ischemic stroke o cerebral infarction, cardiac autonomic dysfunction o heart rate variability o HRV, hypothesis of lateralization, insula, y en español. Se encontraron 48 artículos originales y dos revisiones sistemáticas. De ellos un estudio sobre las bases neuroanatómicas y fisiológicas del control autonómico cardiovascular, tres sobre evaluación de la variabilidad de la frecuencia cardíaca, y 46 acerca de los efectos del infarto cerebral y su topografía en la función autonómica cardíaca

RESULTADOS:  La corteza insular se considera un centro de integración autonómica cardiovascular. Valores significativamente más altos de la relación de frecuencia baja/frecuencia alta se han encontrado en pacientes con infarto insular derecho. El papel prominente de la ínsula derecha en el control parasimpático de la función cardíaca explica por qué el infarto cerebral de esta región puede conducir a un desequilibrio autonómico y una regulación positiva de la función simpática.

CONCLUSIONES: La topografía del infarto cerebral se asocia con la disfunción autonómica cardíaca luego de un ictus isquémico. El infarto insular es el principal responsable de la mayoría de los disturbios autonómicos cardiovasculares provocados por un ictus isquémico. Los hallazgos sobre la lateralización hemisférica para el control autonómico cardiovascular son contradictorios. No obstante, la mayoría de los estudios coinciden en que las lesiones cerebrales derechas se asocian con un aumento del tono simpático.

Palabras clave

regulación autonómica cardíaca; infarto cerebral; disfunción autonómica cardíaca; variabilidad de la frecuencia cardíaca; ínsula; lateralización

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