Algoritmo diagnóstico y terapéutico en el infarto cerebral embólico de causa indeterminada

Eduardo Morales Carmenates, Ginette Amelia Vargas Abreu, Alejandro Bustamante Sotolongo

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Resumen

Objetivo: Describir un algoritmo diagnóstico que facilite individualizar los pilares de la profilaxis secundaria en los pacientes con ictus embólico indeterminado.

Adquisición de la evidencia: Se realizó una revisión sistemática de los estudios publicados desde 2014 hasta 2019 sobre los aspectos clínicos, imagenológicos y terapéuticos del espectro del ictus embólico indeterminado. Se consultaron las bases de datos de Medline (PubMed), SciELO, Cochrane y Google Académico. Se tuvo en cuenta los artículos originales, publicados en revistas sometidas a revisión por pares, que incluyeran pacientes mayores de 18 años con diagnóstico de infarto embólico indeterminado.

Resultados: El ictus embólico indeterminado representa 21 % de los infartos cerebrales en menores de 50 años. Se define como un infarto de tipo no-lacunar, sin evidencia de estenosis arterial significativa o fuente cardioembólica. Son más probables los infartos corticales leves asociados a embolismo paradójico en jóvenes sin factores de riesgo vascular. En edades avanzadas predominan el embolismo cardiaco y el mecanismo arteria-arteria por placas subestenóticas cervicales y aórticas. Se distinguen dos fenotipos etiológicos opuestos: aquellos con sustrato aterotrombótico y formación de trombos blanco que se benefician de la antiagregación, y los que se deben a la producción de trombos rojos donde la anticoagulación es de elección.

Conclusiones: La inclusión de los ictus embólicos indeterminados, como un fenotipo clínico, posibilita la realización en los pacientes que lo padecen de un algoritmo diagnóstico estratificado con exámenes complementarios más avanzados, para disminuir los casos que permanecen criptogénicos. Sin embargo, estos enfermos representan un amplio y heterogéneo grupo que no permite generalizar el uso de la anticoagulación.

Palabras clave

embolismo; ictus criptogénico; ateromatosis subestenótica; fibrilación auricular paroxística; cardiopatía atrial; foramen oval permeable

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