Trastornos del sueño en pacientes con enfermedad de Parkinson

Justa Elizabeth González Naranjo, Maydelin Alfonso Alfonso, Ada Iris Calzada Delgado, Lilia María Morales Chacón, Alcibíades Rodriguez

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Resumen

OBJETIVO: Evaluar la frecuencia de presentación de los trastornos del sueño según edad, sexo y tiempo de evolución.

MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal por medio de una entrevista, examen clínico y estudio de polisomnografía a 77 pacientes con diagnóstico de enfermedad de Parkinson, remitidos al Centro Internacional de Restauración Neurológica, La Habana, Cuba, en el periodo comprendido entre septiembre de 2014 a enero de 2018. Se evaluó la edad, sexo y el tiempo de evolución de la enfermedad de Parkinson en función de los trastornos del sueño diagnosticados por polisomnografía. Se empleó la estadística descriptiva, así como el análisis no paramétrico (Kruskal-Wallis).

RESULTADOS: La evaluación mostró resultados dentro de parámetros normales en 6,49 % de los pacientes, trastorno del comportamiento del sueño de movimientos oculares rápidos en 29,87 %, insomnio en 29,87 % (principalmente, el tipo de mantenimiento del sueño), síndrome de apnea obstructiva del sueño en 25,97 % y el síndrome de piernas inquietas asociado con el movimiento periódico de las piernas durante el sueño en 7,79 %. Estos trastornos presentaron un comportamiento similar entre ambos sexos, así como una tendencia a empeorar con la edad y el tiempo de evolución.

CONCLUSIONES: Se detectó una alta prevalencia de trastornos del sueño en pacientes con enfermedad de Parkinson, los cuales no reflejan variaciones de acuerdo con el sexo; sin embargo, fueron más frecuentes en los pacientes de mayor edad o de mayor tiempo de evolución.

Palabras clave

trastornos del sueño; enfermedad de Parkinson; polisomnografía

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